England Economy


England is a substantial part of the whole United Kingdom, it is also the heart of state economy and business. These merits are preconditioned by historical issues (the outburst of first industrial revolution in Europe and terrific economic reforms of the 20th century) and modern trends of international economy (the dominance of services sector, growth of financial and communication fields, implementation of new technologies and innovations). On the international arena England is famous for export of capital and industrial goods.

In England, mining industry is mainly associated with natural gas and petrol extraction from the shelf of the North Sea. In addition, the majority of nine petrol refineries are located precisely in England – in the area of Thames Estuary, Manchester Chanel, Teesside, Fawley near Southampton, Humberside. Moreover, the extraction, refining and distribution of energy resources are performed by world-known multinational companies, based in England (London) – British Petroleum, JKX, Royal Dutch Shell (the merge of English and Dutch oil companies).

The development of iron ore is in a relatively narrow zone, which begins near the town of Scunthorpe in Yorkshire in the north and stretches across the East Midlands to the city of Banburry in the south. The ore is of low quality, siliceous and contains only 33% of the metal. Three out of four metallurgic regions are located on the territory of England: Sheffield – Rotherham, ports Scunthorpe in Humberside, Redcar in Teesside facilitated by coal extraction in Lancashire and North-East.

Non-ferrous metallurgy in England is one of the most successful and profitable in Europe, it is based on imported resources due to the lack of them in the country. This industry gravitates to port cities in order to intense the manufacture and transportation abroad (the USA and Germany mainly). West Midlands is the prime area of non-ferrous metals: here are a lot of small businesses specializing in the manufacture, distribution, casting and processing of nonferrous metals. Others include Tyneside, London and aluminum industry on the North-East of England. 

Machinery manufacturing is the biggest industry in English economy, which involves the biggest amount of workers as well. Especially, England is famous for transport machine building (including automobiles), which is concentrated in practically all the big cities. It is also appropriate to name the crucial multinationals, which extremely contribute to the economy of the area: Jaguar (Coventry), Rolls-Royce Motor Cars (Goodwood), Bentley (Crewe), Aston Martin Lagonda Limited (Warwickshire), Lotus Cars (Norwich), MG Rover Group (Birmingham). The first major area of automotive industry in the British Isles was the West Midlands with its center in Birmingham. The second area of automobile manufacture was the south-east England (with centers in Oxford, Luton and Dagenham), where there was a plenty of manpower. The other industries of international specialization are aircraft manufacturing (Birmingham) leaded by BAE (takes the second place in the world) and Rolls-Royce major contractors and shipbuilding (Wear and Tyne Rivers). Electrical engineering is represented by General Electric, English Electric and Associated Electrical Industries.

Chemical industry is also the substantial part of English economy, the enterprises of which gravitate to refineries in search of necessary raw materials. The main areas of the chemical industry deployment are: South-East England, Lancashire and Cheshire. England is one of the world's major exporters of fertilizers, plastics, detergents, pharmaceutical products and synthetic fibers.

Textile industry is the traditional one for England, which includes the production of wool in West Yorkshire, acetate silk in Silsden (Yorkshire), and cotton fabrics in Lancashire, in the small textile towns to the north-east of Manchester.

Over the last decades food industry achieved almost the same importance as machinery or energy industry both in England and in the whole state. English products are much promoted by world-known companies, which entered the world market rapidly and obtained a huge appreciation. Among them are Cadburry (confectionery products), Diageo (alcohol), and Unilever (food and beverages), which have main offices in London (Unilever has also another one in Rotterdam (Netherlands).

On the world market, England impresses with food concentrates, confectionery, beverages (including English tea and London gin), and tobacco products.